Ponca Oklahoma History
This article contains information about the history of the Ponca Nation of Oklahoma and its people. That's the name of a federally recognized tribe in Oklahoma, also known as the "Ponca" nation. They are the largest and most powerful federal tribes in the United States, the second largest tribe in the nation after the Navajo Nation and the third largest of all tribes recognized as a people by the federal government.
Historically, the poncas have been associated with a variety of cultural, religious, and political activities in Oklahoma and other parts of the country.
Before the arrival of the Teton Sioux in 1750, the Poncas had been extending from the Missouri to the Black Hills. It was in this area, according to oral tradition from Omaha Ponca, that they first met the Marinara, who then occupied the area in northeastern Nebraska. Then they migrated downstream along the Kansas River, then pushed west and settled in Nebraska near the Niobrara River.
In the 1880s, the Ponca split from the Teton Sioux and the Marinara in what is now Oklahoma. At that time they were divided into two separate tribes, one in eastern Oklahoma and another in western Nebraska and western Kansas.
The rest of Oklahoma was registered as Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma under the Dawes Allotment Act of 1892. In 1936, the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act paved the way for the creation of Southern Oklahoma, which created a constitution and laws that remain in effect today. Native American rights, such as those that provided for the introduction of fee and subsistence farming before Oklahoma became a state, and a number of other rights and privileges. The Indian rights, similar to those of the Teton Sioux and the Marinara, but with the addition of fees for land ownership and a series of restrictions on the use of grazing land for hunting and fishing, both of which were introduced by the state before they became states.
The last contract with Ponca ceded to the U.S. government, reducing today's Knox and Boyd counties to just 96,000 acres. This treaty required the Teton Sioux to be removed from their traditional land and as a result the Sioux were given the right to graze, hunt and fish, as well as the right to self-determination. Drawings began and surveyors finished surveying roads and land for selected areas.
The station four miles south, now called White Eagle, was called Ponca because that was the name of the Indian tribe. From this point, the lane led to the B.M. Ford's Arkansas River, which was located at the intersection of US Highway 70 and Oklahoma River.
The Ponca became quite familiar to Europeans after the Lewis and Clark expedition reached their village. In the spring of the following year, 1859, they attempted their usual tribal hunting of buffalo, but were met by a group of white men from the US Army and Navy.
The invasion of the country led to the forcible transfer of the Ponca to a reserve in Oklahoma. Standing Bear and his family returned to their traditional land and became known as the "Ponca Tribe of Nebraska."
This site is located in Wood (1959, p. 10), which extends to the area of what is now Ponca City, Oklahoma, south of the Missouri River. Omaha, Iowa, continued to build villages and moved south along the Missouri until they established a village near the present city of Omaha on the Mississippi River, cites John Champe (Wood, 1959 (p. 10)). While the PonCA, Omaha and Osage of Kansas went upstream to Mississippi, they stayed in their traditional lands of Nebraska and Kansas.
The southern Ponca settled under the head, the White Eagle, and they organized a tribal government. The PonCA organized tribal governments in their traditional lands of Nebraska and Kansas in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Around this time, the Ponca were forcibly driven from their homeland in northeastern Nebraska and marched into the Native American area in Oklahoma. The same report, dating back to 1880, records that 80 houses were built for Poncaos in Oklahoma, and the total population of PonCA was 833. So figures from 1937 show that there were 1,222 if you divide it by the number of poncans in Kansas State (1.2 million) and 2.5 million in Nebraska (2 million). If you divide them based on the populations of Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas (3 million), it would be 2,834.
The Ponca tribe was approached by government agents from the Indian Bureau who selected 8 chiefs to accompany them to Oklahoma to search for land for their new reservation in the Indian territory, Oklahoma. The PonCA chiefs made their way to Indian territory in Oklahoma and visited many different land reserves, all equally barren and unsuitable for agriculture.
Finally, a Lakota family was found in Craig, Nebraska, whose ancestors harvested ponka-red corn on the banks of the Niobrara River in the fall of 1877 and continue to plant and harvest it to this day. Omaha emigrated to the town of Omaha Creek and built a fortified lodge village in Omaha, now Thurston County Nebraska, which they called the Big Village.